The Mediterranean Lab for Co-production 

of Social Innovation

We can classify co-production models into two main models, which are as follows:

Substitutive and additive co-production

Individual and collective co-production

So overall, it is easy to spot the difference between individual co-production and collective co-production:

  • Individual co-production describes those situations where a client or a customer, individually or in a group, participates in the production or part-production of the services they use, receiving benefits that are largely personal.
  • Collective co-production builds on the idea that co-production is not confined to users, but involves other types of people, such as citizens, volunteers or non-governmental partners. This type of co-production is designed to produce benefits for the entire community.

Read Enhancing the role of citizens in governance and service delivery, pages 4-7