Models of co-production
We can classify co-production models into two main models, which are as follows:
Substitutive and additive co-production
Individual and collective co-production
So overall, it is easy to spot the difference between individual co-production and collective co-production:
- Individual co-production describes those situations where a client or a customer, individually or in a group, participates in the production or part-production of the services they use, receiving benefits that are largely personal.
- Collective co-production builds on the idea that co-production is not confined to users, but involves other types of people, such as citizens, volunteers or non-governmental partners. This type of co-production is designed to produce benefits for the entire community.